What Is Shamir’s Secret Sharing?

The idea behind shim your secret sharing Is that if you have some piece of data Some some reasonably short secret piece Of data so like a Bitcoin seed then you Can split this up into multiple pieces That will allow you to reconstruct it And so why would you do this well if you Have something like a Bitcoin C there's Inherently a tradeoff that you have to Make where if you want your data to be Resistant if you want it to be Accessible right if you want to not lose It and to be able to recover it you kind Of want to make it pretty accessible so Here's by the way like this is a crypto Steel tube let me just unscrew this and And show off for people who aren't Familiar there's all these tiles here With data but there's a trade-off right So I can have this here it's all nice It's just sitting on my desk and like I'm showing it off on podcast and stuff But all right so that's easy I'm not Going to lose it you know it's sitting Beside my computer but the tra of course Is that if it's easy for me to access It's easy for anybody to access so I Have to worry you know what people going To come into my home are they going to Steal this is it going to be a Target Somehow maybe I would want to go further Maybe I'd want to have more than one Copy right so I have my copy here that Anybody can take um if I really want to

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Protect it against like a natural Disaster or something then I would Probably want to have another copy That's somewhere else that I can't even Keep an eye on it kind of thing so's This trade-off here where I can either Make this really accessible and Redundant and then inrease the risk of Theft or I can make it not very Accessible and not very redundant and Increase the risk that I'm going to lose It okay and that's a trade-off that's Just a trade-off that you have to make With when you're storing secret data Like this and so Shamir secret sharing Lets you make this trade off in a bit of A more nuanced way where it lets you Split your data into multiple pieces and You can set a threshold typically two or Three and if you have fewer pieces than The threshold you don't learn anything About the secret But if you have threshold many pieces Then you learn the whole secret so it's Not like I'm splitting it into like Multiple pieces and spreading them Everywhere like you know as the more you Collect the more you know about the Secret kind of thing there's actually This like sharp Cliff here where you go From knowing nothing at all as you get One two shares and you get the third one And then you know the whole thing it's The way that this works and so this lets

You kind of do this nice tradeoff where If you want to have something that say Very Um I guess redundant and resistant to People losing shares and stuff you can Create a whole bunch of these different Shares but if you're worried about them Being compromised you can increase the Threshold so what you might do for Example as a two of three or or a three Of five maybe is is kind of a threshold That I would recommend so you have five Different tubes that're all floating Around the world um you know being held By trusted friends and family and Lawyers and so forth and any three of Them will let you reconstruct the secret So you can lose up to two of them and Still be able to recover your secret and You can have up to two get compromised And in either case you're still fine and Again hopefully you notice a compromise Al that might be harder to notice right If like somebody is just rifling through Stuff so you can put tamperproof Stickers on these and get some sort of Hint that they've been accessed so three Of five gives you this nice benefit Where you have a bunch of tubes Distributed but you need three to be Compromised in order for your coins to Be stolen or you need three to be lost Before you actually lose them so you Have quite a bit of quite a bit of room

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